Pandit Deendayal Upadhyay is well-known for his philosophy of governance which he presented to some 500 party workers in 1964. Further, he expanded his ideas in Party’s plenary session in 1965, where he conceived and articulated his political thoughts. His philosophy later on became the guiding philosophy of Bharatiya Jan Sangh (BJS). The final version was delivered in the form of four lectures in Bombay, titled ‘Integral Humanism’.
He also advocated the integration of the body, mind, intellect and soul of each human being. He visualized for India a decentralized polity and self-reliant economy with the village as the base.
This idea is visualized as a home-grown, entirely indigenous, economic and political philosophy that reconciled Socialism and Capitalism. Pt. Deendayal Upadhyay viewed Western concepts like individualism, democracy, socialism, communism or capitalism as a ‘road-block’ to the growth and expansion of original Bharatiya Chintan.
Apart from his philosophy, Deendayalji was also a thinker, writer and journalist. He also penned a drama- ‘Chandragupta Maurya’ in 1946 and wrote a biography of Adi Shankaracharya in 1947. In order to spread the ideology of nationalism, he started a monthly ‘Rashtra Dharma’ from Lucknow in 1945.
After the formation of BJS, Deendayal ji was seconded to the party by the Rashtriye Swayamsewak Sangh (RSS) and was appointed as General Secretary of its Uttar Pradesh branch. Later in December, 1952, he became the All-India General Secretary of BJS.
Pt. Deendayal ji insisted that BJS stood for a socialist economy with a 1:20 ratio between the lowest and highest incomes and nationalization of infrastructure industries. He spoke of a ‘national sector’, a sort of public-private partnership that would facilitate self-employment and individual entrepreneurship.
He was no admirer of the planning process and strongly critiqued all the five year plans for failing to focus on employment, infrastructure, agricultural production, education and public health.